Wednesday, 7 June 2023

Tuesday, 6 June 2023


Hypolimnas anomala, commonly known as the Malayan eggfly or crow eggfly, is a species of eggfly. Distribution and habitat

Distribution and habitat

This species is present as various subspecies in South East Asia (Moluccas, New Guinea, Australia). It especially occurs in lowlands and tropical rainforests, wastelands, hill parks and natural reserves.


Hypolimnas anomala can reach a wingspan of 65–75 mm (2.6–3.0 in). These butterflies have brown forewings with a purple sheen. They show variable white markings. Usually there are a double row of white marginal spots and three pale streaks on each forewings. The hindwings are rather paler, with dark brown veins. The undersides of both wings are similar to the uppersides. In the adult butterflies only four legs are present. These butterflies mimic Euploea species.


Females lay golden in colour globular eggs in a large cluster on the underside of the leaves. They hatch after about 3–4 days. The 6th (and final) instarcaterpillars are black with yellow spots and spines. Also the head is yellow. with long black cephalic horns. They are gregarious and usually occur in large numbers.

They feed on leaves of Urticaceae (Pipturus argenteus, Pipturus arboresceus, Pouzolzia, Villebrunea species ) and Euphorbiaceae (Claoxylon).


6-6-2023 UBUD, BALI - SAP SUCKING INSECT (Anoplocnemis phasianus)

Anoplocnemis phasiana is a species of sap-sucking insect in the genus Anoplocnemis. They are native to Asia where they are considered a major pest of many types of agricultural plants such as trees and shrubs, including legumes, sometimes known as the tip-withering bug.


Monday, 5 June 2023

5-6-2023 UBUD, BALI - SCALY BREASTED MUNIA (Lonchura punctulata)


The  scaly-breasted munia or spotted munia (Lonchura punctulata), known in the pet trade as nutmeg mannikin or spice finch, is a sparrow-sized estrildid finch native to tropical Asia. A species of the genus Lonchura, it was formally described and named by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. Its name is based on the distinct scale-like feather markings on the breast and belly. The adult is brown above and has a dark conical bill. The species has 11 subspecies across its range, which differ slightly in size and color.

This munia eats mainly grass seeds apart from berries and small insects. They forage in flocks and communicate with soft calls and whistles. The species is highly social and may sometimes roost with other species of munias. This species is found in tropical plains and grasslands. Breeding pairs construct dome-shaped nests using grass or bamboo leaves.

The species is endemic to Asia and occurs from India and Sri Lanka east to Indonesia and the Philippines (where it is called mayang pakíng). It has been introduced into many other parts of the world, and feral populations have established in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, as well as parts of Australia, and the United States of America, with sightings in California. The bird is listed as of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

The scaly-breasted munia is about 11–12 centimetres (4.3–4.7 in) long and weighs 12–16 grams (0.026–0.035 lb). The adult has a stubby dark bill typical of grain eating birds, brown upperparts and a dark brown head. The underparts are white with dark scale markings. The sexes are similar, although males have darker markings on the underside and a darker throat than females.

Immature birds have pale brown upperparts, lack the dark head found in adults, and have uniform buff underparts that can be confused with juveniles of other munia species such as the tricolored munia (Lonchura malacca) across the Asian and island populations and the black-throated munia (Lonchura kelaarti) in parts of India or Sri Lanka.

Distribution and habitat

The scaly-breasted munia (subspecies topela) has established in parts of eastern Australia such as Queensland

Scaly-breasted munias are found in a range of habitats but are usually close to water and grassland. In India, they are especially common in paddy fields where they are considered a minor pest on account of their feeding on grain. They are found mainly on the plains, but can be observed in the foothills of the Himalayas, in which they may be present at altitudes near 2,500 m (1.6 mi), and in the Nilgiris, where they are found at altitudes up to 2,100 m (6,900 ft) during the summer. In Pakistan, they are restricted to a narrow region from Swat in the west to Lahore, avoiding the desert zone, and then occurring again in India east of an area between Ludhiana and Mount Abu. The species has also been observed in Kashmir, though this is rare.

Outside their native range, escaped birds frequently establish themselves in areas with a suitable climate and can then colonize new areas nearby. 

Outside their native range, escaped birds frequently establish themselves in areas with a suitable climate and can then colonize new areas nearby. Escaped cage-birds established in the wild and such populations have been recorded in the West Indies (Puerto Rico since 1971), Hawaii (since 1883, Australia, Japan and southern United States, mainly in Florida and California. In Oahu, Hawaii, they compete for habitats with the tricolored munia and tend to be rare where this competitor is present. The species has been introduced to other parts of the world due to its popularity as a cage bird and populations have established in the wild.

5-6-2023 UBUD, BALI -JAVAN MUNIA (Lonchura leucogastroides)


The Javan munia (Lonchura leucogastroides) is a species of estrildid finch native to southern Sumatra, Java, Bali and Lombok islands in Indonesia. It was introduced in Singapore and the Malay Peninsula; It inhabits subtropical and tropical dry shrubland and grassland habitat. It has been assessed as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List.

The Javan munia is known to feed on algae.

Sunday, 4 June 2023

3-6-2023 UBUD, BALI - GREY PANSY BUTTERFLY (Junonia atlites),

J. atlites is found in Bangladesh, India, southern China, Cambodia, Indochina, the Malay Peninsula, western and central Indonesia, and the Philippines.


4-6-2023 UBUD, BALI - WHITE-HEADED MUNIA (Lonchura maja)

 The white-headed munia (Lonchura maja) is a species of estrildid finch found in Teladan, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. This species is also introduced to Portugal. It is found in wetlands habitat. The status of the species is evaluated as Least Concern.


Smallish (11 cm), white headed brown finch. Similar to the chestnut munia but paler brown and entire head and throat white. Young birds are brown on upperparts with underparts and face buff. Iris-brown; bill-grey; feet-pale blue. Voice: high-pitched 'pee-pee'.

Distribution and status

Malay peninsula, Sumatra, Java, Bali and Celebes. In Java and Bali this is a fairly common and widespread bird up to 1500 m.


It frequents marshes and reedbeds. Like other munias form large flocks during rice harvest but spread out in pairs during breeding season. General behaviour similar to other munias.


Rice and Grass seeds.


Four to five, occasionally six, white eggs are laid in a typical munia ball-shaped grass nest. Breeding is recorded in West Java for February.

Thursday, 1 June 2023



The Javan pond heron (Ardeola speciosa) is a wading bird of the heron family, found in shallow fresh and salt-water wetlands in Southeast Asia. Its diet comprises insects, fish, and crabs.

The Javan pond heron is typically 45 cm long with white wings, a yellow bill with a black tip, yellow eyes and legs. Its overall colour is orange, slaty and white during mating season, and brown and flecked with white out of the mating season. The non-breeding plumage is similar to that of the Chinese and Indian pond herons and is virtually indistinguishable in the field. It breeds from June to September. It is migratory.

Widespread throughout its large range, the Javan pond heron is evaluated as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Sunday, 28 May 2023

27-5-2023 TABIN RESERVE, BORNEO - GOULD'S FROGMOUTH (Batrachostomus stellatus)


 Gould's frogmouth is a medium-sized bird that will approximately weight 47 to 48.5 g and measure 21 to 25 cm. It can be seen in two different morphs. They both have the same patterns except that one is light and the other one is dark. They are mostly brown and have a white collar with some scattered white spots on the cover of the wings. The underparts have oval-shaped spots that appears whitish. Contrarily to the other frogmouths, the males and females are very similar. However, some differences arise which permit their identification. The females will have a darker reddish-brown color. Moreover, females have brown iris and yellowish legs while the males have yellow iris and pinkish legs.

Distribution and habitat

This species is found solely in Southeast Asia. More precisely, it is found in Brunei, certain regions of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and in Southern Thailand. However, it is mostly present in Malaysia and Singapore. The habitat of Gould's frogmouths is tropical rainforest. They are mostly found in forest with native tree species that has not been disturbed by humans. This species usually lives in lowland forests, up to 500 metres elevation.


Gould's frogmouths are insectivore like many other frogmouths in the area. They will feed on different types of moths, on certain beetles and on locusts.


The breeding season can differ depending on the location of the birds. In the Malaysian area, it is from June to September and in Borneo it is from February to July. The incubation time is about 30 days and both parents will do the incubation. The nest is made with some of the parent's down and is usually small and shallow. Using some branches and lichens, the parents hide the nest to protect it from predators. The nests are mostly found at 1.3 m high and the females will lay one egg per clutch. The eggs have an oval shape and are white.

Conservation status and threats

According to the IUCN, the Gould's frogmouth species is categorized as near threatened. Its population is continuously decreasing. This is due to the threats to its habitat. In Southern Thailand, there is a critical decline in the bird populations living in the lowland areas because the deforestation of the lowland forests by humans is destroying the habitat of different species. Therefore, Gould's frogmouth species is facing local extinction in Thailand. However, this species is spread in many different regions of Southeast Asia, so it reduces the risks of total extinction.

Monday, 15 May 2023

14-5-2023 PULAU UBIN, SINGAPORE - Pagoda Flower (Clerodendrum paniculatum)

 Clerodendrum paniculatum, the pagoda flower, is a species of flowering plant in the genus Clerodendrum and family Lamiaceae.
It is native to tropical Asia and Papuasia (southern China including Taiwan, Indochina, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Borneo, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Philippines, Bismarck Archipelago), Fiji, and French Polynesia.It is introduced in Central America. Flower (Clerodendrum paniculatum).

14-5-2023 PULAU UBIN, SINGAPORE - SULTAN DRAGONFLY (Camacinia gigantea)


Sunday, 14 May 2023

14-5-2023 PULAU UBIN, SINGAPORE - BROWN PANSY (Junonia hedonia)

 Junonia hedonia, the brown pansy, chocolate pansy, brown soldier or chocolate argus, is a butterfly found in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and Australia.

14-5-2023 PULAU UBIN, SINGAPORE - JAVAN MYNA (Acridotheres javanicus)

 The Javan myna (Acridotheres javanicus), also known as the white-vented myna, is a species of myna. It is a member of the starling family. It is native to Bali and Java. It has been introduced to other Asian countries, and as far away as Puerto Rico.

14-5-2023 PULAU UBIN, SINGAPORE - ZEBRA DOVE (Geopelia striata)

 The zebra dove (Geopelia striata), also known as the barred ground dove, or barred dove, is a species of bird of the dove family, Columbidae, native to Southeast Asia. They are small birds with a long tail, predominantly brownish-grey in colour with black-and-white barring. The species is known for its pleasant, soft, staccato cooing calls.

The native range of the species extends from Southern Thailand, Tenasserim, Peninsular Malaysia, and Singapore to the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java. It may also be native to Borneo, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, and the Philippine islands.


Papilio polytes, the common Mormon, is a common species of swallowtail butterfly widely distributed across Asia.

This butterfly is known for the mimicry displayed by the numerous forms of its females which mimic inedible red-bodied swallowtails, such as the common rose and the crimson rose.



 The plain tiger is found across the entirety of Africa, where the predominant subspecies is D. c. alcippus. Its range extends across the majority of Asia throughout Indian subcontinent, as well as many south Pacific islands. The plain tiger is even present in parts of Australia. D. c. chrysippus is most common throughout Asia and in some select regions in Africa, while D. c. orientis is present in more tropical African regions as well as some African islands, including Madagascar and the Seychelles. It is also found in Southern Europe and Kuwait. These insects are considered bioinvaders in North America.

The plain tiger prefers arid, open areas, and is found in a variety of habitats, including deserts, mountains, deciduous forests, and human-tended gardens in cities and parks. It is comfortable at altitudes ranging from sea level to around 1,500 m (4,900 ft).