Sunday 28 May 2023

29-5-2023 TABIN RESERVE, BORNEO - RED BEARDED BEE-EATER (Nyctyornis amictus)


The red-bearded bee-eater (Nyctyornis amictus) is a large species of bee-eater found in southern Myanmar, the Thai-Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra and nearby smaller islands. This species is found in openings in patches of dense forest.

Like other bee-eaters, they are colourful birds with long tails, long decurved beaks and pointed wings. They are large bee-eaters, predominantly green, with a red colouration to face that extends on to the slightly hanging throat feathers to form the “beard”. Their eyes are orange.

27-5-2023 TABIN RESERVE, BORNEO - GOULD'S FROGMOUTH (Batrachostomus stellatus)

 Gould's frogmouth is a medium-sized bird that will approximately weight 47 to 48.5 g and measure 21 to 25 cm. It can be seen in two different morphs. They both have the same patterns except that one is light and the other one is dark. They are mostly brown and have a white collar with some scattered white spots on the cover of the wings. The underparts have oval-shaped spots that appears whitish. Contrarily to the other frogmouths, the males and females are very similar. However, some differences arise which permit their identification. The females will have a darker reddish-brown color. Moreover, females have brown iris and yellowish legs while the males have yellow iris and pinkish legs.

This species is found solely in Southeast Asia. More precisely, it is found in Brunei, certain regions of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and in Southern Thailand. However, it is mostly present in Malaysia and Singapore. The habitat of Gould's frogmouths is tropical rainforest. They are mostly found in forest with native tree species that has not been disturbed by humans. This species usually lives in lowland forests, up to 500 metres elevation.

Gould's frogmouths are insectivore like many other frogmouths in the area. They will feed on different types of moths, on certain beetles and on locusts.

The breeding season can differ depending on the location of the birds. In the Malaysian area, it is from June to September and in Borneo it is from February to July. The incubation time is about 30 days and both parents will do the incubation. The nest is made with some of the parent's down and is usually small and shallow. Using some branches and lichens, the parents hide the nest to protect it from predators. The nests are mostly found at 1.3 m high and the females will lay one egg per clutch. The eggs have an oval shape and are white.

According to the IUCN, the Gould's frogmouth species is categorized as near threatened. Its population is continuously decreasing. This is due to the threats to its habitat. In Southern Thailand, there is a critical decline in the bird populations living in the lowland areas because the deforestation of the lowland forests by humans is destroying the habitat of different species. Therefore, Gould's frogmouth species is facing local extinction in Thailand. However, this species is spread in many different regions of Southeast Asia, so it reduces the risks of total extinction.

Saturday 27 May 2023

27-5-2023 TABIN RESERVE, BORNEO - WHITE CROWNED HORNBILL (Berenicornis comatus)

 The white-crowned hornbill (Berenicornis comatus), also known as the long-crested hornbill or white-crested hornbill (leading to easy confusion with the African white-crested hornbill), is a species of hornbill.

It is monotypic within the genus Berenicornis, although rarely the white-crested hornbill is also included in this genus, and the white-crowned hornbill is sometimes placed in genus Aceros instead.

Berenicornis comatus. Close-up on the heads of male (right) and female (left)

Berenicornis comatus is a large hornbill, reaching a length of 83–102 cm (33–40 in) and a weight of 1.3–1.5 kg (2.9–3.3 lb). Females are smaller than males. The plumage is black and white. The head, neck, breast and tail are white, while the remaining plumage is black. It has white crown feathers erected in a crest (hence the common name). Between the eye and the bill and on the throat there is bare dark blue skin. The bill is mainly black, with a yellowish base. Like most hornbills, it has a blackish casque on the top of its bill. The female has a black neck and underparts.


The maroon-breasted philentoma (Philentoma velata) is a bird species. They are now usually assigned to the Vangidae. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, and Thailand. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical swamps.

It is threatened by habitat loss

Friday 26 May 2023

27-5-2023 TABIN RESERVE, BORNEO - WREATHED HORNBILL (Rhyticeros undulatus)

 The wreathed hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus) is an Old World tropical bird of the hornbill family Bucerotidae, also called bar-pouched wreathed hornbill due to its distinctive blue-black band on its lower throat sac. It is named after its characteristic long, curved bill that develops ridges, or wreaths, on the casque of the upper mandible in adults. Males are black with a rufous crown, a white upper breast and face, and a yellow featherless throat. Females are uniformly black with a blue throat and are slightly smaller than males.

The wreathed hornbill ranges across the foothills and evergreen forests of Northeast India and Bhutan to Bangladesh, Southeast Asia and the Greater Sunda Islands. It is a frugivore and feeds mainly on large fruits, which it swallows whole leaving the seeds intact. This feeding behaviour plays an important ecological role for the long-distance seed dispersal in forest ecosystems.

The wreathed hornbill is threatened by hunting, habitat fragmentation and deforestation. It has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 2018, as the global population is estimated to decrease due to these threats.

26-5-2023 TABIN RESERVE, BORNEO - BUSHY CRESTED HORNBILL (Anorrhinus galeritus)

The bushy-crested hornbill (Anorrhinus galeritus) is a bird in the hornbill family. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, and Thailand. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

It lives in groups.

Females have a unique nesting behavior in which they stay alone in a mud-covered tree hole during incubation and are fed by other hornbills from outside the nest.

The bushy-crested hornbill mainly eats fruit: several different species of figs, Indian Mast Tree (Polyalthia lateriflora), Oncosperma horridum, Canarium megalanthum, Canthiumera glabra, Zuccarinia macrophylla, Myristica sp., Horsfieldia sp., champak (Magnolia champaca), Dysoxylum sp., Fibraurea tinctoria, Endocomia macrocoma, and Alseodaphne falcata.


The proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) or long-nosed monkey is an arboreal Old World monkey with an unusually large nose, a reddish-brown skin color and a long tail. It is endemic to the southeast Asian island of Borneo and is found mostly in mangrove forests and on the coastal areas of the island.

This species co-exists with the Bornean orangutan and monkeys such as the silvery lutung. It belongs in the monotypic genus Nasalis.

Thursday 25 May 2023

24-5-2023 SUKAU RIVER LODGE, BORNEO - BORNEAN ELEPHANT (Elephas maximus ssp. borneensis)

The Borneo elephant, also called the Bornean elephant or the Borneo pygmy elephant, is a subspecies of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) that inhabits northeastern Borneo, in Indonesia and Malaysia. Its origin remains the subject of debate. A definitive subspecific classification as Elephas maximus borneensis awaits a detailed range-wide morphometric and genetic study. Since 1986, the Asian elephant has been listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List as the population has declined by at least 50% over the last three generations, estimated to be 60–75 years. It is pre-eminently threatened by loss, degradation and fragmentation of habitat.
The Sultan of Sulu was thought to have introduced captive elephants to Borneo in the 18th century, which were released into the jungle. Comparison of the Borneo elephant population to putative source populations in DNA analysis indicates that the Borneo elephants more likely derived from Sundaic stock and are indigenous to Borneo, rather than having been introduced by humans. The genetic divergence of Borneo elephants warrants their recognition as a separate evolutionarily significant unit.

Wednesday 24 May 2023

24-5-2023 SUKAU RIVER LODGE, BORNEO - GRAY HEADED FISH EAGLE (Haliaeetus ichthyaetus)

The grey-headed fish eagle (Icthyophaga ichthyaetus) is a fish-eating bird of prey from South East Asia. It is a large stocky raptor with adults having dark brown upper body, grey head and lighter underbelly and white legs. Juveniles are paler with darker streaking. It is often confused with the lesser fish eagle (Icthyophaga humilis) and the Pallas's fish eagle. The lesser fish eagle is similar in plumage but smaller and the Pallas's fish eagle shares the same habitat and feeding behaviour but is larger with longer wings and darker underparts. Is often called tank eagle in Sri Lanka due to its fondness for irrigation tanks.


It is found from the Himalayas through Southeast Asia to Sumatra. This species is named after its distinctive shade of copper-sulphate blue and has a dark patch between the eyes and above the bill base. The adult males are intense blue on all areas of the body, except for the black eye-patch and grey vent. Adult females and sub-adults are lighter blue.

The verditer flycatcher is also interesting among the flycatchers in that they forage above the canopy level and perching on electric wires or exposed tree top branches.

This species was earlier placed in the genus Muscicapa and it has been suggested that it is closer to the Niltava flycatchers. 

Thursday 18 May 2023

18-5-2023 SEPILOK, BORNEO - BLACK AND YELLOW BROADBILL (Eurylaimus ochromalus)

The black-and-yellow broadbill (Eurylaimus ochromalus) is a species of bird in the typical broadbill family Eurylaimidae. A small, distinctive species, it has a black head, breastband, and upperparts, a white neckband, yellow streaking on the back and wings, and vinous-pink underparts that turn yellow towards the belly. The beak is bright blue, with a green tip to the upper mandible and black edges. It shows some sexual dimorphism, with the black breastband being incomplete in females.

Native to Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, and Thailand, it inhabits evergreen forest, dipterocarp forest, swamp forest, heath forest, and forest edge, along with secondary forest and plantations that contain large trees. Mainly inhabiting lowlands, the species is found up to elevations of 1,220 m (4,000 ft). The black-and-yellow broadbill is mainly insectivorous, but also feeds on molluscs and incidentally takes fruit.

The black-and-yellow broadbill breeds during the dry season throughout its range, with both sexes helping build a large, untidy, pear-shaped nest out of moss, fungal mycelia, and leaves. Eggs are laid in clutches of two or three, sometimes containing a fourth runt egg, and are incubated by both sexes. The species is listed as near-threatened by the IUCN because of a decline in its population caused by habitat loss.


18-5-2023 SEPILOK, BORNEO - BLACK AND CRIMSON PITTA (Erythropitta ussheri)

The black-crowned pitta (Erythropitta ussheri), also known as the black-headed pitta, black-and-crimson pitta, black-and-scarlet pitta or black-crowned garnet pitta, is a brightly coloured, ground-dwelling, bird species in the pitta family. It is endemic to the Southeast Asian island of Borneo. It was described by John Gould in 1877, with the type locality recorded as the Lawas River in northern Sarawak.

The pitta has only been recorded from the Malaysian state of Sabah in northern Borneo, where it occupies lowland tropical rainforests from sea level up to about 300 m, above which it is replaced by the blue-banded pitta. It prefers dark and damp places, especially ravines beneath dense cover. In prime habitat, such as the primary forest of the Danum Valley Conservation Area, recorded population densities are 21–22 pairs per square kilometre. It can also be found in areas that have been selectively logged as well as in overgrown rubber and Albizia plantations.

Wednesday 17 May 2023

17-5-2023 SABAH, BORNEO - RED CROWNED BARBET (Psilopogon rafflesii)

The red-crowned barbet (Psilopogon rafflesii) is a species of bird in the family Megalaimidae. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, and Thailand. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and plantations. It is threatened by habitat loss.

The red-crowned barbet is medium-large, at 24.5–27 cm (9.6–10.6 in) in length and 99–150 grams (3.5–5.3 ounces) in weight. It is primarily green, with a red crown and spots below the eyes, black and yellow face, and a blue throat and eyebrow. Females resemble males, but are duller.


Tuesday 16 May 2023

16-5-2023 KOTA KINABALU NAT PRK, BORNEO - WHITEHEAD'S TROGON (Harpactes whiteheadi)

Whitehead's trogon (Harpactes whiteheadi) is a species of bird in the family Trogonidae. It is endemic to the island of Borneo, where it is an uncommon resident in primary mountain forest. One of Borneo's largest trogons at 29 to 33 cm (11 to 13 in) long, it is sexually dimorphic. The male is crimson on the head, nape, and underparts, with a black throat and grey chest; the rest of his upperparts are cinnamon-coloured. The female is similarly patterned, but cinnamon-brown where the male is scarlet. The species was first described for science by Richard Bowdler Sharpe in 1888, who named it for British explorer and collector John Whitehead. There are no subspecies.

It is primarily an insectivore, but also eats various plant materials, including fruits and seeds. Other than the timing of its breeding—typically between April and June—little is known about its breeding biology. The International Union for Conservation of Nature rates Whitehead's trogon as a near-threatened species. While its population numbers have not been quantified, the trogon is thought to be declining. Habitat loss is a key threat. 


The snowy-browed flycatcher (Ficedula hyperythra) is a species of bird in the family Muscicapidae.

It is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.

16-5-2023 KOTA KINABALU NAT PRK, BORNEO - BORNEAN WHISTLER (Pachycephala hypoxantha)

The Bornean whistler (Pachycephala hypoxantha) or Bornean mountain whistler, is a species of bird in the family Pachycephalidae. It is endemic to the island of Borneo

16-5-2023 KOTA KINABALU NAT PRK, BORNEO - BORNEAN STUBTAIL (Urosphena whiteheadi)

The Bornean stubtail (Urosphena whiteheadi) is a species of bird in the cettiid warbler family Cettiidae. It is endemic to the island of Borneo, where it inhabits forest floors and undergrowth in montane forests at elevations of 750–3,150 m (2,460–10,330 ft). It is a small, short-tailed warbler, measuring 9.5–10 cm (3.7–3.9 in) in length and having an average mass of 10.4 g (0.37 oz). The tops of the head and the upperparts are brown, with whitish underparts that turn grey at the sides of the breast and the flanks. The supercilium (stripe above the eye) is long and buffish-brown, with an equally long dark grey eyestripe (stripe through the eye) and a thin yellow eye-ring. Both sexes are similar.

The species feeds on invertebrates, especially green aphids, foraging in a mouse-like manner on the ground and in undergrowth. Nests are made out of reddish plant fibres, with incubation taking 24 days on average. It is classified as being of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its sufficiently large range and stable population.


Delias pasithoe, the redbase Jezebel is a medium-sized butterfly of the family Pieridae, that is, the yellows and whites. The species is found in parts of South Asia and Southeast Asia. There has been some dispute for which species the specific name aglaja (or aglaia), used twice by Linnaeus in 1758, applies – the redbase Jezebel, or the dark green fritillary (Speyeria aglaja), a brush-footed butterfly. Here, Delias pasithoe is used for the redbase Jezebel, based on the replacement name proposed by Linnaeus himself. 

14-5-2023 PULAU UBIN, SINGAPORE - ASSASSIN BUG (Cosmolestes picticeps)



The eyebrowed jungle flycatcher (Vauriella gularis) is a species of bird in the Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae. It is endemic to the island of Borneo[2] (elevated areas, including the Meratus Mountains). The natural habitat of the eyebrowed jungle flycatcher is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It builds an open, mossy cup nest, generally in epiphytes or spiny palms.


 The long-tailed broadbill (Psarisomus dalhousiae) is a species of bird that is found in the Himalayas, extending east through Northeastern India to Southeast Asia. It is the only bird in the genus Psarisomus. The long-tailed broadbill is about 25 cm (10 inches) in length and weighs between 50 and 60 grams. It can be identified by its shrill call.

The long-tailed broadbill displays a yellow plumage on the throat. Blueish-green plumage on the belly, back, and wings. The long-tailed broadbill is a forest bird that lives on insects. It is very sociable and normally travels in large, noisy parties except during the mating season. It builds a pear-shaped nest in a tree. The female usually lays between 5 and 6 eggs that are incubated by both sexes; both sexes also help to feed the young.

Monday 15 May 2023

16-5-2023 SABAH, BORNEO - DARK HAWK CUCKOO (Hierococcyx bocki)

The dark hawk-cuckoo (Hierococcyx bocki) is a bird in the family Cuculidae formerly considered conspecific with the large hawk-cuckoo (Hierococcyx sparverioides) and placed in the Cuculus genus.

In Malaysia it occurs in upper Malaya, northern Sarawak and Sabah. In Indonesia it is found on Sumatra and in Kalimantan. It is also found in Brunei.


15-5-2023 KOTA KINABALU, BORNEO - HOOK BILLED BULBUL (Setornis criniger)

The hook-billed bulbul (Setornis criniger) is a species of songbird in the bulbul family, Pycnonotidae. It is found in eastern Sumatra and Borneo, where its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical swamps. It is threatened by habitat loss. Alternate names for the hook-billed bulbul include the long hook-billed bulbul and long-billed bulbul.

While currently monotypic within the genus Setornis, originally the genus contained the hairy-backed bulbul (now Tricholestes criniger viridis).

14-5-2023 PULAU UBIN, SINGAPORE - Pagoda Flower (Clerodendrum paniculatum)

 Clerodendrum paniculatum, the pagoda flower, is a species of flowering plant in the genus Clerodendrum and family Lamiaceae.
It is native to tropical Asia and Papuasia (southern China including Taiwan, Indochina, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Borneo, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Philippines, Bismarck Archipelago), Fiji, and French Polynesia.It is introduced in Central America. Flower (Clerodendrum paniculatum).

Sunday 14 May 2023

14-5-2023 PULAU UBIN, SINGAPORE - BROWN PANSY (Junonia hedonia)

 Junonia hedonia, the brown pansy, chocolate pansy, brown soldier or chocolate argus, is a butterfly found in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, and Australia.

14-5-2023 PULAU UBIN, SINGAPORE - JAVAN MYNA (Acridotheres javanicus)

The Javan myna (Acridotheres javanicus), also known as the white-vented myna, is a species of myna. It is a member of the starling family. It is native to Bali and Java. It has been introduced to other Asian countries, and as far away as Puerto Rico.

14-5-2023 PULAU UBIN, SINGAPORE - ZEBRA DOVE (Geopelia striata)

 The zebra dove (Geopelia striata), also known as the barred ground dove, or barred dove, is a species of bird of the dove family, Columbidae, native to Southeast Asia. They are small birds with a long tail, predominantly brownish-grey in colour with black-and-white barring. The species is known for its pleasant, soft, staccato cooing calls.

The native range of the species extends from Southern Thailand, Tenasserim, Peninsular Malaysia, and Singapore to the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java. It may also be native to Borneo, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, and the Philippine islands.


Papilio polytes, the common Mormon, is a common species of swallowtail butterfly widely distributed across Asia.

This butterfly is known for the mimicry displayed by the numerous forms of its females which mimic inedible red-bodied swallowtails, such as the common rose and the crimson rose.



 The plain tiger is found across the entirety of Africa, where the predominant subspecies is D. c. alcippus. Its range extends across the majority of Asia throughout Indian subcontinent, as well as many south Pacific islands. The plain tiger is even present in parts of Australia. D. c. chrysippus is most common throughout Asia and in some select regions in Africa, while D. c. orientis is present in more tropical African regions as well as some African islands, including Madagascar and the Seychelles. It is also found in Southern Europe and Kuwait. These insects are considered bioinvaders in North America.

The plain tiger prefers arid, open areas, and is found in a variety of habitats, including deserts, mountains, deciduous forests, and human-tended gardens in cities and parks. It is comfortable at altitudes ranging from sea level to around 1,500 m (4,900 ft).

Friday 12 May 2023


 The pond slider (Trachemys scripta) is a species of common, medium-sized, semiaquatic turtle. Three  are described,[2] the most recognizable of which is the red-eared slider (T. s. elegans), which is popular in the pet trade and has been introduced to other parts of the world by people releasing it to the wild. Hatchling and juvenile pond sliders have a green upper shell (carapace), yellow bottom shell (plastron), and green and yellow stripes and markings on their skin. These patterns and colors in the skin and shell fade with age until the carapace is a muted olive green to brown and the plastron is a dull yellow or darker. Some sliders become almost black with few visible markings. The carapace is oval with a bit of rounding and a central crest with knobs, but these features soften and fade with age, adults being smoother and flatter. For determining an adult slider's sex, males typically have much longer front claws than adult females, while females usually have shorter, more slender tails than males. Their lifespans range from 20 to 50 years.


The Eurasian magpie or common magpie (Pica pica) is a resident breeding bird throughout the northern part of the Eurasian continent. It is one of several birds in the crow family (corvids) designated magpies, and belongs to the Holarctic radiation of "monochrome" magpies. In Europe, "magpie" is used by English speakers as a synonym for the Eurasian magpie: the only other magpie in Europe is the Iberian magpie (Cyanopica cooki), which is limited to the Iberian Peninsula.

The Eurasian magpie is one of the most intelligent birds, and it is believed to be one of the most intelligent of all non-human animals. The expansion of its nidopallium is approximately the same in its relative size as the brain of chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and humans. It is the only bird known to pass the mirror test, along with very few other non-avian species.


Thursday 11 May 2023


Pieris rapae is a small- to medium-sized butterfly species of the whites-and-yellows family Pieridae. It is known in Europe as the small white, in North America as the cabbage white or cabbage butterfly, on several continents as the small cabbage white, and in New Zealand as the white butterfly. The butterfly is recognizable by its white color with small black dots on its wings, and it can be distinguished from P. brassicae by its larger size and the black band at the tip of its forewings.

The caterpillar of this species, often referred to as the "imported cabbageworm", is a pest to crucifer crops such as cabbage, kale, bok choy and broccoli. Pieris rapae is widespread in Europe and Asia; it is believed to have originated in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Europe, and to have spread across Eurasia thanks to the diversification of brassicaceous crops and the development of human trade routes. Over the past two centuries, it spread to North Africa, North America, New Zealand, and Australia, as a result of accidental introductions

Wednesday 10 May 2023

25-10-2016 SINGAPORE - SUNDA PYGMY WOODPECKER (Dendrocopos moluccensis) (FEMALE)

 The Sunda pygmy woodpecker (Yungipicus moluccensis), also known as the Sunda woodpecker, is a species of bird in the family Picidae. It is found in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore. Some taxonomic authorities continue to place this species in the genus Dendrocopos or Picoides.

This is a small woodpecker with an overall length of around 13 cm (5.1 in). It has a greyish brown capped head, dark brown ear covers with two rather broad whitish grey bands narrowing towards neck. Upper parts greyish brown with white wings tipped with white thus appearing striped. Tail short and blackish with white bands. Lores and throat white leading into dirty white underparts. Upper breast streaked with brown reducing towards vent. Whitish underwing coverts with pale brown. Sexes dimorphic. Males have a reddish orange crown which is absent in females.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical mangrove forest, and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.

10-5-2023 MONTE CORONA, VALENCIA - OLEANDER SEED BUG (Caenocoris nerii)

Caenocoris nerii, common name oleander seedbug, is a species of ground bugs in the insect family Lygaeidae.

Females usually lay eggs on the leaves of Nerium oleander (hence the common name of the species). All stages of nymphs suck almost exclusively the milky juice of the main host plant (Nerium oleander), but they may also feed on Asclepiadaceae species. Nynphs overwinter. Adults normally feed on the Oleander's fruits and seed. These aposematic bugs are usually rejected by predators because of their toxins derived from the host plant.


10-5-2023 MONTE CORONA, VALENCIA - LOBONYX AENEUS BEETLE (Superfamily Cleroidea)

Lobonyx aeneus is a species of soft-winged flower beetles in the family Prionoceridae, found in the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa.

Tuesday 9 May 2023


The species name hirta comes from the Latin hirtus meaning rough hair or rough wool, referring to the coarse, fuzzy appearance of the beetle.

This species is present in Europe, in North Africa (Algeria, Morocco), in Russia (Western and Eastern Siberia), in Israel, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan.

It prefers areas with sandy soils. It can be found in open woods, in deciduous forests, in forest clearings, forest edges, in grasslands and wet meadows, but also in dry valleys and wet areas.

The fully formed beetles can be seen from late May to September.[3] The adult beetles feed on nectar and pollen.[3] Females lay the eggs in the soil where they hatch after about eight days. The larvae live in the humus where they feed on decaying vegetables. After having overwintered larvae pupate in early summer of the next year and a new generation of beetles will then developed.



Scopula submutata, the Mediterranean lace border, is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is found in southern Europe, North Africa and the Near East. The habitat consists of open, dry grassland and rocky slopes.

The wingspan is 20–25 millimetres (0.79–0.98 in). There are two generations per year, with adults on wing from May to October.

The larvae feed on Thymus species and Origanum vulgare.